First Generation 1. Allen PARKE, Source. 1Various church records have been checked in Cumberland and Lancashire counties, England, and after ruling out several Rogers, the one that seems to indicate that Roger Parke of Hopewell, New Jersey, was the Roger christened June 25, 1648, as the son of Allen and Elizabeth Parke of Carmel, Lancashire Co., England. Children of Allen Parke named in the Will of 1667 were: Roger, christened June 25, 1648: Thomas, christened Feb. 5, 1657, George, christened March 12, 1654 and James, May 8, 1664. Ann was not named in Allen's Will, but church parish records show her christened Jan. 13, 1661 as daughter of Allen Parke. Allen married Elizabeth1. They had the following children: 2i.Roger (1648-~1737)3ii.Thomas (-1664)4iii.George (-1718)5iv.James
Descendants of Roger Parke           Roger Parke was born June 1648 in Lancashire Co., or Cumberland Co., England, and died Bet. 1737 - 1738 in Hopewell, Hunterdon Co., New Jersey.. He married ANN PATISON April 10, 1676. Recorded in "Digest of Quaker Marriages for Cumberland and Northumberland Counties, England." Also recorded in the HOLMES MONTHLY MEETINGS, ref. Book 355, page 268., daughter of JOHN PATISON and MARGARET.       Notes for Roger Parke       Various church records have been checked in Cumberland and Lancashire counties, England, and after ruling out several Rogers, the one that seems to indicate that Roger Parke of Hopewell, New Jersey, was the Roger christened June 25, 1648, as the son of Allen and Elizabeth Parke of Carmel, Lancashire Co., England. Children of Allen Parke named in the Will of 1667 were: Roger, christened June 25, 1648: Thomas, christened Feb. 5, 1657, George, christened March 12, 1654 and James, May 8, 1664. Ann was not named in Allen's Will, but church parish records show her christened Jan. 13, 1661 as daughter of Allen Parke.       Church records found in Richmond, Furness (Cartmel) show the death of Thomas Parke, June 7, 1682. Exec. Brother George Parke of Carmel. George Parke died Sept. 30, 1718.   Adm. Wife, Margaret. (names sons, George and Allen)(#098,580,Probate Records, Cumberland Co., England).       Carmel was in the northern part of Lancashire County, bordering Westmoreland county. General consensus is that this is the Roger Parke who left Hexham, England after June 1682 for West Jersey.       Roger married Ann Patison, daughter of John and Margaret Patison of Northumberland County, England, April 10, 1676.   The mariage record for Roger Parke of Hexham, Northumberland County, England was recorded in "The Digest of Quaker Marriages for Cumberland and Northumberland Co., England." The marriage was also recorded in the Holmes Monthly Meeting, with reference to book 355, page 268. Society of Friends, Allendale Monthly Meeting (England), LDS Film #0813511 (marriages 1663-1837)       The next confirmation on Roger Parke's arrival in America is found in the "Letter of Removal", given to him before he left Enland for West Jersey. The date on the Certificate was June 11, 1682, which indicated that he probably left England on the next available ship. His deed was dated 24th or 25th of May, 1682, so he had purchased the 200 acres from Edward Bylinge, while still in England.   (Society of Friends, Chesterfield, Burlington Co., New Jersey, Hicksite, Film #0016513 #3, Removals)       No passenger list has ever been found for a Roger Parke of for the Patisons, who also made the voyage to Crosswicks, Burlingon Co., New Jersey in 1682. However, it is possible that they arrived on the ship "Greyhound" which went aground in the Delaware River in the fall of 1682, and was reported to have carried over 350 passengers.       Another record was found in the "Account Book of William Penn, Quaker," in 1685, indicating that he had paid Roger Parke, 9 pounds ...shillings, to "cure" a negro. Source: PA. Mag. of History & Biography, Vol. 35, 1911, p. 201. This seems to substantiate why he was called "doctor". A road to Trenton was named "Rogers Road" because Roger was said to have traveled it so much. He possibly had many friends and perhaps relatives still around the Trenton area where he had lived before.       Roger Parke studied with the indian medicine men and learned to use herbs to heal his patients. Herbal healing was very popular in the early colonies.       Roger was described as having an abundance of herbs growing in his garden. We do not know if Dr. Roger Parke had previous medical knowledge before coming to America, but is is possible that he did as they were using herbal remedies in England for hundreds of years. Dr. Roger Parke made so many trips to Trenton, that the road he traveled on bacame known as "Rogers Road."       In 1685, Roger purchased 200 acres from Anthony Woodhouse, Burlington Co., New Jersey. In November 1686, Roger, late of Hexham, sold the 200 acres of land that he had purchased in 1682 from Mr. Bylinge, to John Watkins of Middlehook. On June 12, 1697 Roger purchased 400 acres of land in Hopewell, Burlington Co., West Jersey which had just opened up to settlement.       Roger Parke had 100 acres of land surveyed for his daughter Anne, in May of 1697, which adjoined his land. Historian Ralph Ege stated he did not think this Ann had ever married.   Ann's 100 acres of land might have gone to her brother, John. John Parke purchased 300 acres near his father. By 1735, when he lost his land he had 600 acres. Most likely, 100 a.   from his sister, Anne and 200 a. from his father, Roger Parke Sr. (1722 tax list shows 200 acres for Roger Jr... none for Roger Sr., and 300 for John). Roger Sr., might have given 200 acres of his 400 to Anne but at a later date, Anne might have given her 300 acres to her brother, John Parke, now giving him the 600 acres.       In 1703/04, Dr. Roger Parke, as he was known, had his three children-- John, Ann and Roger Jr., baptized in what was then St. Ann's Anglican Church (later became St. Mary's) in Burlington Co., New Jersey. No other children are known but is possible that he had others.       By 1735, the Roger Parke family (Roger Sr., Jr., John Sr., Jr., Andrew and Joseph) were given "Eviction Notices" to vacate the land that they had been living on for over 48 years. Thirty thousand acres of land was sold in 1665 to Dr. Daniel Coxe, of England. However, his son Colonel Daniel Cox who was the governor of West Jersey from 1687 to about 1690 began to make changes. After the death of Dr. Coxe, the Coxe heirs began to claim the 30,000 acres. The land around Hopewill had been sold for about fifty cents an acre. Many settlers began to buy and settle there.. one being Roger Parke, his daughter Ann and his son John. However, when the Coxe heirs began to claim the land, fifty settlers in the area decided to sue for the rights to their land and appose Coxe heirs but they were overruled by twelve Quaker jurors. Most of the Parkes soon left the area, except for Roger Parke, Jr., and several of his children. The settlers refused to have to pay for their land again.       John Parke, eldest son of Roger Parke Sr., had the most to lose. Details of the tar and feathering incident will be mentioned under John Parke.       Eventually Roger Parke, Jr.'s children began to move into northern Hunterdon county, where land was offered for sale. However Roger Jr., was able to keep his 200 acres of land in Hopewell untill his death about 1737. About 1740, the land was put up for public auction and Jacob Stout and his wife, Grace Parke Stout purchased the land. Several years later, it is believed that James and wife Keziah Parke Larison lived on this land. Both Grace and Keziah were said to be the daughters of Roger Parke, Jr.       Recent information has been given us on the old Parke farm which had been sold several times, and that of the house that Keziah Parke Larison lived in. The Larison house still stands and is presently occupied. The property that once belonged to Roger Parke Sr., has become a beautiful homesite.       The time of Dr. Roger Parke Sr.'s death is not certain, but it is believed he might have died about 1737, as about this time, Roger Jr.'s name disappears from the Hopewill Town Meeting Records.       Roger Sr., was very active in the community and held the position of Justice of the Peace for several years. (Source: Pioneers of Old Hopewell: Ralph Ege)       I am sure that Dr. Parke would have been very proud of his homsite today. It is sad that the Parke-Larison burial plot set aside by Dr. Roger Parke no longer exists, as time has taken its toll on the old cemetery.


Second Generation Family of Allen PARKE (1) & Elizabeth 2. Roger PARKE, Son. Born in Jun 1648 in Lancashire Co., or Cumberland Co., England.2 Roger was baptized on 25 Jun 1648.1 At the age of 88, Roger died in Hopewell, Hunterdon Co., New Jersey Bet. 1737 - 1738.2 Religion: Quaker.3 3In 1690 Roger Parke, an English immigrant, lived in a Quaker settlement on Crosswick's Creek, but he traveled so often to Wissamonson to study medicine under old Indian squaws and medicine men that his path was called "Roger's Road." About 1700 he moved his family to Hopewell as its first white settlers. Surveys preceded settlement, and Hopewell's first farm was surveyed on February 27, 1696 by Revell for Thomas Tindall, but not occupied until c1706 by his son-in-law John Pullen [John Pullen (Poillion, Bullen), of Huguenot ancestry, first occupant of Tindall's 1696 farm: Hunter & Porter, Hopewell, A Historical Geography, p. 105]. Some of Roger Parke's Quaker neighbors from Crosswick's settled south of him in Hopewell. [Land records: 1686: Jonathan Eldridge; 1688: Dr. John Houghton of Gloucester, 1693: John Wilsford; 1694: Widow Mary Stanisland; 1695: John Bryerley, Capt. Moses Petit & Benjamin Clark. A 1696 survey showed that Parke's Stony Brook tract adjoined land owned by John Moore, George Hutchinson, Sam Bunting and Marmaduke Houseman. Surveys, 1696: Edward Hunt 200 acres in the Society's 30,000 acre tract; 1697: Andrew Smith for Thomas Smith, next to Roger Parke 1698: John Gilbert, weaver, James Melvin near Thomas Stevenson, Nathaniel Pope, Edward Burroughs and George Woolsey]. Church" (St. Mary 's Episcopal, Ewing.) A year before the cornerstone was laid (March 25, 1703) some Hopewell residents who were Quakers and Baptists rushed down to Ewing to have their adult children baptized as Anglicans to protect their inheritance rights. Baptized February 28,1702 by Rev. Mr. John Talbot: John and Roger Parke, ye children of Rogr. Parke. Thomas, Andrew, Elizabeth, Mary and Hannah Smith, the children of Andrew Smith. William Scholey (son) of Robt. Scholey. [Stillwell, Historical Miscellany, Vol. 1152-53, Register of St. Mary's Episcopal Parish, Ewing, N.J. Also baptized at St. Mary's in March 1714: Richard Allison]. By now, settlers had cleared land, built cabins and barns, widened paths, and established a ferry to connect with the Philadelphia road where many went to shop or to church so that the Jersey wilderness was becoming a productive, English style, rural community of isolated farms joined by lanes and a few wagon roads. In 1707 Col. Coxe acted to reclaim the Hopewell tract he had conveyed to the West Jersey Society by persuading the Cornbury Ring to make a new survey of the Hopewell tract in his name. Then, in 1708 the Coxes had a major setback: the Crown removed Lord Cornbury as Governor because of the turmoil caused by his obvious corruption. The new Governor supported the Proprietors, Col. Coxe was removed from Council and Assembly, and soon found the political climate so hostile that he returned to England. With him in disfavor, the West Jersey Society maintained its claim to the Hopewell tract without dispute. About 1708, the area around Penny Town received an influx of Presbyterians from Newton [1708 Deeds: Thomas Runyan; Richard Motfs 1,350 acre Penny Town tract war, subdivided and sold to Nathaniel Moore, John Mott, John Cornwall (Cornell) and Thomas Reed], including twenty-one year old Nathaniel Moore, recently married to Joanna Prudden (b. December 16, 1692), and Elnathan Baldwin who was married to Joanna's sister, Keziah Prudden [Daughters of Presbyterian Rev. John Prudden of Newark, a 1688 graduate of Harvard]. Within a two mile radius of the Moores settled others who were probably from Newton [others from Newton to Pennington c1708-10: John Muirheid, George Woolsey, John Welling, John Titus, Thomas Burroughs, William Cornell, John Carpenter, John Ketcham, Edward & Ralph Hunt, Robert Lanning, John Larison, Abraham Temple, and five brothers: Edward, Nathaniel, Joseph, Ralph & John Hart]. This great influx from Long Island led to the organization of a church, and in 1709 a call was sent to Philadelphia for a Presbyterian minister to serve "the people of Maidenhead and Hopewell." None being available, they continued to be served by the church in Philadelphia. In 1713 Hopewell Township was removed from old Burlington County, and became part of newly formed Hunterdon County. In 1714 John Reading and William Greene were first assessors. Deeds were issued c1709/10 for other parts of Hopewell Township. In its north area, Baptists and Quakers from Burlington had farms around Stoutsburg and Columbia (a village today called "Hopewell"). The Hunts were on Long Island on June 4,1714 when John, Sr. (b. c1658, son of Ralph of Newton) bought 500 acres in Hopewell, bounded E by Stony Brook, N by Samuel Davis, W by Capt. Hannel and S by Johannes Lawrenson. On March 7, 1715, John Hunt and wife Joanna of Newton, sold 100 acres in Newton. (Joanna Hunt, widow, joined Pennington Presbyterian Church August 31, 1733.) Johanna Hunt's son, John, Jr. (b. c1690 in Newton) married at Newton February 8, 1714 Margaret Moore, probably daughter of Gersham Moore. John and Margaret Hunt's son, Jonathan (October 17, 1717 - September 5, 1782) married c1737 Mary, daughter of Andrew and Sarah (Stout) Smith, Jr. (This is the same Jonathan Hunt who become a founder of Jersey Settlement, one of the most prominent men in the area, and a Colonel in the Rowan Militia). Thomas Reed of Hopewell was probably brother to John Reed (b. May 3, 1677, Long Island) who moved to New Jersey c1697. [In the 1640's, several Reed brothers from England settled on farms at Newton, L.I. where they had large families. In 1656 Thomas Reed was in Middleburg, N.J. when he built a house for the Episcopal minister. Thomas Reed and John Reed lived in Hopewell Twp. between Marshalls Comer and Woodsville and were members of Penningtoes Presbyterian Church. John & Sarah (Smith) Reed are buried in the Hunt graveyard. (Ralph Ege, Pioneers of Old Hopewell, p. 66.). The Burlington and Ewing Reeds descend from William E. Reed (1689-1762), wife Elizabeth Smith. This progenitor of the Reeds of Ewing and Lawrence came c1700 from Long Island, and purchased a farm in west Lawrence. In 1706, while Ewing was still part of old Hopewell Twp., he built a substantial house on Ewingville Rd. & Spruce St. (now a museum), and is buried in Ewing churchyard. (Ibid Lewis, p. 283). In 1709 four Houghton (Hooten) deeds: John Jr., Joseph, Richard & Thomas; also deeds for Joshua Ward, Samuel Allen, Robert Tindall, Robert Stockton and Joseph Hixson. (TheTindalls, Hixons and Houghtons settled in the NE (predominantly Baptist and Quaker) part of the township). Several prominent English families settled on Stony Brook c1719, making it likely they arrived together: the Houghtons, Robert Stockton, William Olden, Benjamin Clark and Joseph Worth. Genealogical Society of New Jersey, History ofHunterdon Co., N.J., p. 50. A different (and apparently unrelated) Reed family moved from New Jersey to Jersey Settlement: Eldad, Medad, Moses and John Reed, sons of John and Hannah (Davis) Reed. [Bible records of Eldad Reed, Jr. b 1767 Jersey Settlement, grandson of John and Hannah (Davis) Reed whom he said "emigrated from New Jersey to Carolina about 1755."] Hannah Davis (b. c1715) who named a son Eldad in 1738, was probably daughter of Eldad Davis. These Davis - Reeds were Baptists and perhaps related to the Jonathan Davis who in 1708 came to Burlington's Court seeking to be qualified as a Baptist preacher according to the Act of Toleration, asking permission to preach in a house, which was how the Hopewell Baptists met at this time. In 1722 Eldad Davis and Jonathan Davis were on the Hopewell Twp. Tax List. Hannah Davis married John Reed (born c1710) perhaps son of the John Reed who was a bachelor in 1699 when he bought a 200 acre farm on Burlington road from the estate of Hester Watts who was almost certainly kin to Rev. John Watts (wife Sarah Eaton) who served the Baptists in Pennepek, Pa. and Hopewell, N.J. until he died of smallpox in 1703. With marriages performed by Baptist and Quaker clergy still not legal whenever the government favored Royalists, parents with nonconformist tenets continued having their offspring baptized as Anglicans to insure their inheritance rights. William and Grace Merrell, Jr., (Baptists from Warwickshire) came to Northfield, Staten Island, then moved to Middletown, N.J., and c1710/11 came to Hopewell with three sons, Benjamin, Joseph and William III (who m. 1729 Penelope Stout). [December 2, 1716 a cattle ear mark " formerly William Merrell's" was registered to "James Hubbard of Middletown." Stillwell, II, cited by Wm. E. Merrell, PhD.; ibid Ege, p 204]. The Merrells bought farms near the Stouts in NE Hopewell's Baptist neighborhood. The era being Royalist, baptized May 11, 1712 at St. Mary's Episcopal: Margaret daughter of William Merrail); George son of John Park. [Stillwell, Historical Miscellany, Vol. 1152-53, Register of St. Mary's Episcopal Parish, Ewing] In 1715, Enoch Armitage, an immigrant from Kirkburton Parish, Lydgate, West Riding, Yorkshire, wrote home saying that he had "settled on Stoney Brook about sixe miles from, Princeton ... near a small town called Pennington." In 1715 Dr. Coxe and Thomas Revel both died. Thomas Revel's Book of Deeds passed to son and heir, Col. Daniel Coxe. The West Jersey Society assigned a new agent to make sales, collect mortgage payments, and keep land records. In 1719 Trenton Township was formed from old south Hopewell. By now, the political climate having swung far enough back to the Royalists for Col. Daniel Coxe to return from his self-imposed exile in England, a wealthy and powerfully connected man who built a mansion in Trenton. [Richard Hunter & Richard Porter, Hopewell: A Historical Geography, p. 28]. When a 1720's land boom increased profits, he tried to reclaim ownership of huge tracts, including Hopewell. In this period, both Coxe and the West Jersey Society sold land in the township. In 1720 the Presbyterians built a stone school at Pennington. On December 29, 1720, Robert Heaton (who in old age pioneered to Swearing Creek) was a Hopewell tailor when he proved Andrew Heath's will. In 1721 the Township had enough freemen to begin its first Book of Records, listing Cornelius Anderson's mill on Jacob's Creek (his namesake kinsman was a Jersey Settlement pioneer). The 1722 Hopewell Tax List listed Robert Eaton as keeper of a general store near the "Old Quaker Church" on Stony Brook just west of Princeton. In 1722 a Hunterdon County Tax Roll was made for five Townships, including Hopewell, and nearby areas such as Ewing, Lawrence and Trenton. About 1723 the Presbyterians build a cedar-shingled meetinghouse near their school at Pennington crossroads. In 1725 Enoch Armitage, now a successful blacksmith, ruling elder and lay minister at Pennington's Presbyterian church, wrote home to Yorkshire: The produce we raise is Wheat and Rhye, Oats, Indian Corn & Flax ... some Hemp ... Tobacco only for our own use. The land nigh the brook affords as good Meadow I think as ever I saw in England .... we can mow twice a year without tillage and have good crops ... there is a Mill built on the next Plantation, and we are going to build a Chapell about a mile off_. In 1731, calamity befell these honest and hard working settlers when "Col. Coxe and other heirs of the late Dr. Coxe" declared that most of Hopewell belonged to them, a claim without an honest basis, e.g., improper surveys or failure to pay -- but the West Jersey Society lacked a court record proving Dr. Coxe's transfer to them. His heir, Col. Coxe, had enough political clout to induce Hunterdon's Supreme Court to order High Sheriff Bennett Bard to serve perhaps a hundred or more Hopewell residents with Writs ordering them to "Pay" for their land a second time or "Quit." Those who failed to repurchase their own farms then received "Writs of Ejectment" which called them "Tenants" and "Tresspassers" on Coxe's land! On April 22, 1731, in an impressive show of unity, fifty of the earliest settlers of Hopewell entered into a written agreement and solemn compact to stand by each other and test the validity of Col. Coxe's claim. They hired an attorney, Mr. Kinsey, and filed a counter suit naming CoL Daniel Coxe as sole defendant. The Township had more people, but some were not affected, having purchased from Coxe. Others considered it useless to fight a man as powerful as Col. Coxe , so did not join in the law suit. The August 1732 term of the New Jersey Supreme Court issued Writs of Trespass & Ejectment against each settler who had not repurchased. The fifty men who sued were identified from their individual records [Virginia Everitt, Clerk of the Hunterdon County Court, Flemington, New Jersey, citing C.H. Records, Vol. H:46. Research of Gloria Padach]: The Coxe Trials, 1733, Fifty Men's Compact Bartholomew Anderson Elnathan Baldwin Robt. Blackwell John Blair Nehemiah Bonham Wm. Cornell William Crickfield Thom. Curtis Benjamin Drake Thomas Evans John Everitt John Fidler John Field Jonathan Furmar Daniel Gano Francis Gano John Hendrickson Isaac Herrin Tom Hinder John Hixon John Houghton Jos. Houghton Tom Houghton John Hunt Ralph Hunt Jacob Knowles David Larue James Melvin Benjamin Merrell John Merrill Andrew Mershon Nathaniel Moore Henry Oxley Andrew Parke John Parke, Jr. Joseph Parke Roger Parke, Sr. Roger Parke, Jr. John Parks Joseph Price John Reed Thomas Reed Ralph Smith Richard Smith Thomas Smith Jonathan Stout Joseph Stout Ephraim Titus John Titus George Woolsey Hopewell was not the only tract affected. A group of citizens in Gloucester County hired a lawyer, Mr. Evans, and also filed a counter-suit. Unaffected communities were distressed that the Royal government abetted deed revocations, anxieties that encouraged later migrations from Hunterdon, Gloucester and Essex Counties. Still, the most violent reaction came in Hopewell where citizens actively resented the political maneuverings behind Col. Coxe's claims to ownership. After a long and tedious trail at Burlington by Judge Hooper and a panel of twelve Quaker jurors, the verdict was against the West Jersey Society and the Fifty Mens Compact. Mr. Kinsey then appealed to New Jersey's leading judicial officer, Chancellor William Cosby, who in December 1734 issued a judgment upholding the decision against the Society and Compact. Unfortunately, Mr. Cosby's ruling was based less on the legal strength of Col. Coxe's claim than on personal hatred of his arch-enemy, Lewis Morris, who after the death of Thomas Revel became primary Agent of the West Jersey Society. No higher appeal was possible because Col. Coxe was Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court, a post he held till his death five years later. The settlers had three choices: pay, remove, or resist. Historian Ralph Ege (born in Hopewell in 1837) wrote about the great dilemma: This verdict caused the most distressing state of affairs in this township that was ever experienced in any community. Some moved away immediately, but the majority stayed, at least initially, and assumed the financial burden. Cattle and personal possessions were sold, and a great struggle began which impoverished many families for years to come. Then came the great excitement incident to ejecting the settlers from the farms which they, or their fathers had purchased, and on which they had built dwellings, barns and fences. Their lands had cost them only fifty cents per acre, it is true, but they had purchased them in good faith and spent the best years of their lives in clearing them. Many had mortgaged them to pay for the expense of improvement consequently not being able to incur the additional expense, they were compelled to leave their homes and seek new homes elsewhere, risking for the second, and for some of them the third time, the perils of the wilderness. Many, including most of the Parke family, refused to pay for the same lands twice and left the area in the early stages of a great out-migration, generally moving westward where new lands were being opened on the Virginia frontier. Some who were unable or unwilling to repurchase, stubbornly refused to vacate their homes -- and were charged rent as "Tenants" -- rent they could or would not pay, and rent defaults created still more debts. The various resistance efforts would fill the colony's court dockets for years to come. Two of the dispossessed, Thomas Smith and John Parke, were brothers-in-law and community leaders, aged 58 and 60, perhaps able to repurchase had they wished, but they (and others) were so angry they no longer wished to live where the government was so corrupt that its Assembly and Supreme Court had aided and abetted Col. Coxe in what they considered to be a monstrous land swindle against honest citizens whose families were the earliest settlers of the Township. Not only did Smith and Parke refuse to pay for their land a second time, they refused to vacate until forcibly evicted by Sheriff Bennett Bard -- who then rented their homesteads to two yeoman named O'Guillon and Collier. This so enraged Smith and Parke that in July 1735 they took their revenge, in the traditional manner of the citizens of Old England who over the centuries had developed ways to express contempt whenever there was no legal recourse: a dishonest official was "Hanged in Effigy," and a man whose actions the community considered despicable was "Tarred and Feathered." Since the perpetrators of this "land grab," Col. Daniel Coxe, Judge Hooper, Sheriff Bard, Gov. William Cosby and lawyer Murray, were out of their victims reach, Thomas Smith and John Parke made a different plan -- but before taking action, sent their families to safety, probably across the river to Bucks County, Pa. In the dead of a July night, Smith and Parke and ten or more friends, slipped into the woods behind the homes where they had grown up, prepared a vat of melted tar and a barrel of chicken and turkey feathers, then broke into their former homes and took a "Tar and Feather" revenge on the interlopers who occupied them! These acts were considerably more than mere personal revenge: "Tar and Feathers" showed utter contempt for Coxe's dishonest officials. Tar was almost impossible to remove, so it publicly shamed the two who sought to gain from injustice, while burning their former homes and barns reduced profits to Col. Coxe. Their rebellion finished, Smith and Parke escaped across the Delaware, and their "ten or more friends" went back to their Hopewell homes, perhaps to toast the night's lively events in good English ale. Public sympathy was surely with these rebels because, in spite of great desperation in the community for money and common knowledge of the identities of the dozen or more perpetrators, nobody ever came forward to claim the large reward. These rebellious acts generated the expected response from the royal officials they had very deliberately insulted. At the August 1735 term of Hunterdon County's Superior Court, Mr. Murray, Attorney for the Coxe heirs, reported: Several persons of Hopewell had, in a riotous and outrageous and violent manner, and by night assaulted ye persons who by virtue of his Majesties' writ, were by the Sheriff of Hunterdon County put into possession of the several houses and plantations of the persons named in the complaint. A proclamation by WILLIAM COSBY, Captain General and Governour in Chief of the Provinces of New-Jersey, New York and Territories thereon Depending, in America_.&c., was published in The American Weekly Mercury, Aug. 21- 28,1735: Whereas I have received information upon Oath that one Duncan O'Guillon and one John Collier were, on the second day of July past, severally put into the Possession of Dwelling houses and Plantations lately in the Possession of John Parks and Thomas Smith, late of Hopewell in the County of Hunterdon, by Daniel Coxe, Esqr., who then had possession of the said dwelling Houses and Plantations, delivered unto him by Bennet Bard Esq., High Sheriff of the said Count of Huntington by Virtue of a Writ of Possession to the Sheriff, directed and issueing out of the Supream [sic] Court of this Province of New Jersey. And that in the night between the Thursday and Friday following, divers Persons unknown, to the number of Twelve or more, being all disguised, having their Faces besmear'd with Blacking and armed with Clubs and Sticks in their Hands Did in an Insolent, Violent and Riotous Manner break into and enter the respective Dwelling Houses and did Assault, Beat and Wound the said Duncan OGuillon and John Collier and other Persons then in the said several Dwelling Houses; and then did with Force & Arms violently move and turn out of possession, Cursing, Swearing and threatening in the most outrageous manner, that they would Kill and Murder the said Daniel Coxe, Esq. in Defiance of all Law and Government. To the End thereof that the said audacious Offenders may be brought to condign Punishment. I Have thought fit by and with the Advice of his Majesty's Council, to issue this Proclamation, hereby promising his Majesty's most Gracious Pardon, to any one of the said Offenders who shall discover one or more of their Accomplices so that he or they may be brought to condign Punishment. And as a further Encouragement to and all of the said Offenders any one who shall discover one or more of their Accomplices ... so that he or they may be brought to condign Punishment one who shall detect so unparallel'd and insolent an Outrage, I do hereby promise to Pay to the Discovered the Sum of Thirty Pounds Proclamation Money within one Month after any or either of the said Offenders shall by his Means by convicted of the said Offence. Given under my Hand and Seal at Arms, at Perth - Amboy, the Twenty Second day of August, in the Ninth Year of his Majesty's Reign. Annoque Domini, 1735. By his Excellency's Command, Lawr. Smyth, D. Secr. W. Cosby GOD SAVE THE KING Smith and Parke did not wait for High Sheriff Bennet Bard to pursue nor for Governor Cosby to declare them outlaws. Before dawn, they had crossed the Delaware river, and were safely beyond the reach of New Jersey's royal officials. Two years after receiving eviction notices, some in Hopewell who had not paid for their land a second time nor paid "rent" on their own homes, fled to avoid being thrown into Debtor's Prison and having their personal property seized. ESCAPED FOR DEBT: Thomas Palmer, William Hixon, James Tatham, Benjamin Merrill, John Palmer, Ralph Parke, Jr., James Gould, Joseph Parke, Albert Opdyke, Hezekiah Bonham, Thomas Mayberry. [Virginia Everitt, Clerk of the Hunterdon County Court, Flemington, New Jersey]. In 1738 Sheriff Bard was ordered to take George Woolsey into custody to insure his court appearance. In the next few years, some stayed in Hopewell, but others followed Smith and Parke west after selling their improvements to newcomers from Long Island and elsewhere for barely enough to make a new start. Between 1731 and 1760 about half of the families of Hopewell's "Fifty Men's Compact" moved where land was cheaper and the government more trustworthy. A popular destination was the upper Shenandoah Valley where the first settlement was started in 1730 when guide Morgan Bryan led a group of Quakers walking from Pennsylvania to the upper Potomac. He settled his own family on Opequon Creek, an area that in 1738 become Frederick County, Virginia. About 1732 another guide, Jost Hite, opened the first wagon road as far as Winchester, settling his group of Pennsylvania Germans on a different stretch of Opequon Creek. Comparison of records for early settlers in the upper Valley shows many with surnames identical to those in New Jersey's "Coxe Affair" including the two opportunistic yeoman, Duncan O'Quillon and John Collier, who after being beaten, tarred and feathered, realized they were not welcome in Hopewell. The greatest concentration of New Jersey migrants was along Back Creek (the next creek west of Opequon) in a small, mountain community where a peak was fortuitously named by its early settlers "Jersey Mountain." Since Thomas Smith (and probably his brother-in-law John Parke) had fled from Hopewell in 1735 without benefit of land sales, carrying only their personal possessions, it's unlikely either was able to buy land on arrival in the Shenandoah Valley. Unfortunately, the same high elevation and steep slopes that made this mountain area a safe haven for refugees beyond the reach of royal law, also made farming difficult, beyond a mere subsistence level. After living several years in these beautiful mountains, many ambitious men began looking elsewhere. Furthermore, the upper Valley was no longer a safe haven. Indian raids and war threats necessitated the construction of frontier forts and the conscription of militia. Parke and Smith were now elderly, their kinsmen middle aged, and, in view of their New Jersey experiences, they were not interested in a new migration that made them "squatters," their reasons for another move being to find a peaceful area with fertile soil, moderate climate, good government and secure land titles. By May 1741, Bladen County issued deeds on the Great Peedee (Yadkin). It was no accident that the Hopewell group chose its north bank to found their "Jersey Settlement," an area described as: "Ten square miles of the best wheat land in the south, located in (modern) Davidson County, near Linwood. It was composed of many people from New Jersey who had sent an agent there to locate and enter the best land still open to settlement." [John Preston Arthur, A History of Watauga County, N. C., (1915) p.88]. A great attraction for these victims of political corruption was that in 1745 North Carolina was exceptionally well governed. Gov. Gabriel Johnston was an honest, capable Scottish physician and professor who on arrival found the colony in pitiable condition, and tried earnestly to better its welfare. "Under (Johnston's) prudent administration, the province increased in population, wealth and happiness."' [C. L. Hunter, Sketches of Western North Carolina, (1877), p. 7]. About 1745, the New Jersey group (perhaps a dozen or more families) left Back Creek in a wagon train bound for the Yadkin. Based on events after arrival, their leaders were probably Jonathan Hunt and Thomas Smith, but they were almost surely guided by the famous "Waggoneer" and explorer, Morgan Bryan who guided other groups to this general area, and in 1748 brought his own family from the Opequon to form Morgan's Settlement on the south bank of Deep Creek, four miles above the "Shallow Ford" of the Yadkin. [Robert W. Ramsey, Carolina Cradle, Settlement of the Northwest Carolina Frontier, 1747-1762; (U.N.C. Press, 1964; 4th printing 1987), p. 31]. So began the River Settlements, best reached from the north via an old Indian warpath, widened and renamed The Yading Path. About 1745/6 Thomas Smith received land on Swearing Creek, but his Bladen deed is missing (as are many others.). At age 71, on September 29, 1748, Smith was at Newburn with men from other western communities, petitioning the North Carolina Assembly to form Anson County, because they had to travel over a hundred miles to Bladen court house. The next day, September 30, 1748, he was appointed Justice of the Peace for Bladen, [William L. Saunders, editor, N. C. Colonial Records, Vol IV: 189, 889] --and under Colonial N.C. law, only landowners could be Justices of the Peace. On November 5, 1748, a survey was made on Swearing Creek for Robert Heaton adjoining Thomas Smith; chain bearers: John Titus and Jonathan Hunt. These men are the first four landowners identified in Jersey Settlement. More than four men were needed in a frontier settlement, so it's likely others came in this first group, young men from Back Creek (not necessarily Hopewell) who were unable to buy land at first, but, being needed, lived with friends or kinsmen. Perhaps some did buy land on arrival, their Bladen deeds missing, like Smith's. John Titus, Jr. (1748 Swearing Creek chain bearer for Heaton), after losing his Hopewell land, joined his wife's uncle, Thomas Smith, on Back Creek before moving with him to the Yadkin. [John Titus, Jr. b. c1715 Hopewell, m. there c1740 Anna Smith (b. 28 Jan 1716) d/o Andrew & Sarah (Stout) Smith, Jr. In 1752, John & Sarah Titus were still in Jersey Settlement, but they returned to Hopewell where she d. 25 Aug 1777. However, other members of the Titus family later came to Jersey Settlement. (Research of Gloria Padach); Peggy Shomo Joyner, Northern Neck Warrants, 11:139] On April 14, 1753, a 584 acre survey for Richard Lane," on "branches of Swaring Creek", adjoining McCullouch's Line, Thomas Smith and Robert Heaton. Wits: Jas. Carter, & Wm. Bishop. [Richard Lane was probably from the Hopewell family of Baptists descended from early immigrant Geisbert Laenen (Gilbert Lane) from north Belgium, then part of Netherlands. In 1719 Mathias Lane died leaving his property in Stoutsburg, Hopewell Twp., to his widow Anna. Obid, Lewis, p. 191; Margaret M. Hofmann, The Granville District of North Carolina 1748-1763, #4673]. Robert Heaton of Hopewell was on Back Creek till, the summer of 1748 when he came to Swearing Creek. "Thomas Potts probably lived on Potts Creek." [James S. Brawley, The Rowan Story. In addition, Thomas Potts was perhaps a descendant of English immigrant Thomas Potts who arrived at Burlington, N.J. in 1678 on the ship Shield with his wife Mary and children, a Baptist on arrival, a 1689 member of Burhngton Baptist Church. Ibid, Baptists of New Jersey. In 1722, Thomas Potts was on Hopewell's Tax List]. Thomas Evans was a very early settler at Rowan's Trading Ford. Robert Ramsey thought he might be Thomas Evans of Maryland [Robert Ramsey, Carolina Cradle, (U.N.C. Press, 4th printing, 1987), p. 110].. However, on July 4, 1738 at St. Mary's, Ewing, the marriage of Tho's Evans & Diana Cassel. In 1753, 348 persons signed a new petition, this one being to separate from Anson County, resulting in the formation of Rowan, of which Henry Reeves wrote: At the time of the formation of Rowan County in 1753, two of the Yadkin settlers, Col. George Smith and Jonathan Hunt, were important enough that the Assembly would not approve the bill for the formation of Rowan County until the names of George Smith Col., and Jonathan Hunt, Capt. were re-inserted. Their names had been in the original bill for formation, but had been deleted and other names substituted by his Majesty's Council. Early Jersey Church served Episcopalians, Baptists and Presbyterians, with later sermons, marriages and baptisms performed by visiting preachers, including Moravians, and catechism lessons by Lutheran Rev. David Henkel. [George Smith (1713-cl.799) s/o Andrew, Jr., brother-in-law to Jonathan Hunt; Smith Bible; Rep. James Whitaker (1779-1871) of Cherokee Co., N.C., My Memoirs, private publication]. Comparison of Settlements Hopewell, New Jersey Fifty Men's Pact 1734 Jersey Settlement Rowan Co., NC Anderson, Bartholomew Anderson, Cornelius (nephew) 1749 J. P., Anson Co. Baldwin, Elnathan Baldwin, John & Wm. 1753 Rowan deeds. Blair, John Blair, John, d. 1746 Mulberry Run, Frederick, Va leaving orphan John. Blair, John (Jr.) 1765 Rowan sale Drake, Benj. Drake, Benj. 1753 Rowan deed, stockmark. Evans, Thomas Evans, Thomas 1747 Rowan Trading Ford Everitt, John Everitt, John 1778 Rowan poll Gano, Daniel & Francis Gano, Rev. John (s/o Daniel), 1770 deed. Hendrickson, John Hendrickson, John 1786 Rowan witness Houghton, John Houghton, Henry 1753 Rowan deed Hunt, John Hunt, Jonathan s/o John, 1748 chain bearer Hunt, Ralph Hunt, Wm. & Thos. 1759 Rowan Tax List Mayberry, Thomas Mabery, Francis 1768 Rowan Tax List Mr. Mayberry, 1771 Regulator Merrill, Benjamin Merrill, John Benjamin Merrill (son of Wm., Jr. nephew of older Benj. & John) 1771 Regulator Moore, Nathaniel Moore, Nathaniel 1778 Rowan Tax List Palmer, John Palmer, J. 1755 Rowan deed witness Palmer, Thos. Palmer, Francis 1753 Rowan deed. Parke, Andrew P----, John 1759 Rowan Tax List Parke, John Parke, George & Noah 1759 Rowan Tax Parke, Joseph Parke, Joseph s/o Hugh, 1781 Rowan will. Parke, Roger Smith, Ralph Smith, Ralph 1761 Rowan Smith, Richard Smith, Richard 1763 Rowan deed Smith, Thomas Smith, Thomas 1748 deed Stout, Joseph Stout, William b. ca 1790 Stout, Jonathan 1822 Rowan Titus, John Titus, John 1748 chain bearer. Note: Identical names in two locations do not prove they are the same individuals. Thomas Evans of the Fifty Mens' Compact, may be same man as (or father of) Thomas Evans of Rowan's Trading Ford. ["14th of 4th month 1713, a baptism at Hopewell, Susanna, daughter Thowas Evans." Ibid, Register of First Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia which also served Hopewell]. John Parke (who fled Hopewell with Thomas Smith) is believed to be the John Park who died in the upper Valley, and perhaps father of George Parks who had deeds on Back Creek and Rowan. April 13, 1751, Thomas Sharp to George Parks 143 acres on Back Creek, Frederick Co., Va. Dec. 20, 1760, "George Park of Roann County, N.C." 143 acres on Back Creek to Thomas Sharp of Frederick Co. [Peggy Shomo Joyner, Northern Neck Warrants, 11:139]. Thomas Smith who rebelled so strongly in Hopewell that he became fugitive, died at his home on Swearing Creek. His widow, Rebecca, many years his junior, lived to see more wagon trains arrive, some with neighbors and kin from Hopewell, including the Baptist Stouts, Eatons and Merrells. She was there c1752 when a huge wagon train brought several hundred people, including most of the congregation of Scotch Plains Baptist Church from Essex County, New Jersey, and undoubtedly heard sermons in 1755 by that church's visiting minister, "Rev. (Benjamin) Miller-(who) spent several weeks at the Jersey Church for the colony was made up of many persons from his neighborhood.-"' [Rev. Morgan Edwards, Materials Towards a History of the Baptists, II:106]. In 1755, a wagon train arrived with Quakers from Pennsylvania, followed in the 1760's by many Germans from Pennsylvania and west Maryland. As a widow, Rebecca (Anderson) Smith, lived with a married daughter, dying at age 86, August 13, 1785, and was buried at Eaton's Baptist Church. The first pioneers kept in touch with New Jersey, e.g., death in Rowan was entered in a Hopewell Bible, and they invited others from Hopewell and Back Creek to join them in the beautiful valley of the Yadkin, an invitation many accepted. Some who had not sued in the Fifty Mens' Compact lost their land, and came to rebuild their fortunes. At least 22 of the 50 families who lost both lawsuit and land in the infamous "Coxe Affair " eventually moved to Jersey Settlement. END NOTES Morgan Edwards, A.M., Fellow Rhode Island College 1770-1792, (His private publication, 1790). Rev. Edwards extant diaries edited by Eve B. Weeks & Mary B. Warren, Materials Towards a History of the Baptists, (Heritage Papers, 1984). Ralph Ege, Pioneers of Old Hopewell, (Hopewell Museum, 1908, rpt 1963). Richard W. Hunter & Richard L. Porter, Hopewell. A Historical Geography, (N. J. Historical Commission, 1990). Alice Blackwell Lewis, Hopewell Valley Heritage, (Hopewell Museum, 1973). ABOUT THE AUTHOR Ms. Ethel Stroupe, a native of Asheville, N.C., is a Certified Social Worker, retired from administration, living in Laguna Niguel, California. She did her first genealogy at Biltmore College as a Biology 101 assignment on genetics taught by her cousin, Professor William E. Merrill, then studied history at the U.'s of Rome, Florence, Ohio State, Pitt, and Cal. Berkeley. Her Jersey Settlement families are Childers, Davis, Fouts, Garren, Harper, Rent, Reed and Whitaker. She gratefully acknowledges the help of Gloria Padach, especially for sharing documents from the New Jersey Archives and Hunterdon courthouse, and advises all who want to know more about Hopewell families buy the excellent books by Ralph Ege and Alice Blackwell Lewis which are crammed with family and historical information, and are available most reasonably by writing to Hopewell Museum, Beverly A. Weide, Curator, 28 East Broad Street, Hopewell, N.J. 08525. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- History of the Jersey Settlement (From History of Wautauga County. Chapter VIII) First Light on the Jersey Settlement.-From a sketch of the Greene Family of Watauga, by the late Rev. G. W. Greene, Baptist missionary to China, we learn that "about the middle of the eighteenth century a colony moved from New Jersey and settled in Rowan County, North Carolina. This "Jersey Settlement" is now a part of Davidson County, and lies near the Yadkin River, opposite Salisbury . . . H. E. McCullough, of England, had secured grants to large tracts in North Carolina, tract No. 9 containing 12500 acres, including much of the land of the Jersey Settlement. Jeremiah Greene bought 541 acres of this tract. This land is described as lying "on the waters of Atkin or Pee Dee," on Pott's Creek. This creek passes near the village of Linwood, within a mile of the Jersey church, and empties into the Yadkin, not far away. This land was bought in 1762. Some years later, when this tract of land was divided between his two sons, Richard and Isaac, the new deeds were not registered, but the names of the new owners were written on the margin of the page where the old deed was registered. The Yadkin becomes the Pee Dee in South Carolina. In his "Rhymes of Southern Rivers" M. V. Moore says that Yadkin is not an Indian name, but a corruption of Atkin or Adkin. If Atkin's initials were P. D., then P. D. Atkin might very easily have become P. D. Yatkin, just as "don't you know" becomes "doncher know." Henry Eustace McCullough was doubtless the "H. E. McCullough, of England," referred to by Mr. Greene, was the agent of the province of North Carolina in December and was commended for good conduct (Col. Rec., Vol. IX, P. 206), and he surrendered land in Mecklenberg, claimed by John Campbell, Esq., of England, without authority as Campbell claimed, although there was a direction in the minutes of the council journals that the attorney-general directing McCulloh was to surrender it." (Id. P. 790.) It seems that land in large tracts had been granted to certain persons of influence on condition that they be settled within certain dates, for G. A. Selwyn, of England, appointed H. E. McCulloh to surrender any part of three tracts of 100000 acres each, which had been granted to him upon the above conditions. (Id. Vol. VI, pp. go6-7.) This was in November, 1763, only a year after Jeremiah Greene bought his 541 acres from H. E. McCullough. This would seem to account for the reference by Bishop Spangenberg to the 400 families from the North which had just arrived in 1752, and for the fact that most of the land east of Rowan County had been already taken up at that time. (Id. Vol. IV, p. 1312.) Meager Facts Concerning-This settlement consisted of about ten square miles of the best wheat land in the South, and was located in Davidson County, near Linwood. It was composed of many people from New Jersey who had sent an agent there to locate and enter the best land still open to settlement. According to Rev. C. B. Williams in his "History of the Baptists in North Carolina" (p. 16), "The exact year in which the Jersey Settlement was made on the Yadkin is not known. It is probable that this settlement left New Jersey and arrived on the Yadkin between 1747 and 1755. Benjamin Miller preached there as early as 1755, and the facts indicate that there were already Baptists on the Yadkin when Benjamin Miller visited the settlement. The Philadelphia Association has in its records of 1755 the following reference: "Appointed that one minister from the Jerseys and one from Pennsylvania visit North Carolina." But Miller appears to have gone to the "Jersey Settlement still earlier than 1755 - - - (p.17). Another preacher who visited the Jersey Settlement was John Gano. He had been converted just before this time, and was directed by Benjamin Miller, pastor of Scotch Plains Church, New Jersey, to take the New Testament as his guide on baptism. He became a Baptist, and, learning of Carolina from Miller, decided to visit the Jersey Settlement on his way to South Carolina. This he seems to have done in 1756. During his stay at the settlement he tells us in his autobiography that "a Baptist Church was constituted and additions made to it." He left the colony early in the year 1759, and so the church must have been organized between 1756 and 1758. There is a tradition that while there Gano, married a Bryan or a Morgan, one of the antecedents of the Bryan family of Boone. The marriage record for Roger Parke of Hexham, Northumberland County, England was recorded in "The Digest of Quaker Marriages for Cumberland and Northumberland Co., England." The marriage was also recorded in the Holmes Monthly Meeting, with reference to book 355, page 268. Society of Friends, Allendale Monthly Meeting (England), LDS Film #0813511 (marriages 1663-1837). The next confirmation on Roger Parke's arrival in America is found in the "Letter of Removal", given to him before he left Enland for West Jersey. The date on the Certificate was June 11, 1682, which indicated that he probably left England on the next available ship. His deed was dated 24th or 25th of May, 1682, so he had purchased the 200 acres from Edward Bylinge, while still in England. (Society of Friends, Chesterfield, Burlington Co., New Jersey, Hicksite, Film #0016513 #3, Removals) Another record was found in the "Account Book of William Penn, Quaker," in 1685, indicating that he had paid Roger Parke, 9 pounds ...shillings, to "cure" a negro. Source: PA. Mag. of History & Biography, Vol. 35, 1911, p. 201. This seems to substantiate why he was called "doctor". A road to Trenton was named "Rogers Road" because Roger was said to have traveled it so much. He possibly had many friends and perhaps relatives still around the Trenton area where he had lived before. In 1685, Roger purchased 200 acres from Anthony Woodhouse, Burlington Co., New Jersey. In November 1686, Roger, late of Hexham, sold the 200 acres of land that he had purchased in 1682 from Mr. Bylinge, to John Watkins of Middlehook. On June 12, 1697 Roger purchased 400 acres of land in Hopewell, Burlington Co., West Jersey which had just opened up to settlement. Roger Parke had 100 acres of land surveyed for his daughter Anne, in May of 1697, which adjoined his land. Historian Ralph Ege stated he did not think this Ann had ever married. Ann's 100 acres of land might have gone to her brother, John. John Parke purchased 300 acres near his father. By 1735, when he lost his land he had 600 acres. Most likely, 100 a. from his sister, Anne and 200 a. from his father, Roger Parke Sr. (1722 tax list shows 200 acres for Roger Jr... none for Roger Sr., and 300 for John). Roger Sr., might have given 200 acres of his 400 to Anne but at a later date, Anne might have given her 300 acres to her brother, John Parke, now giving him the 600 acres. 4In several of our previous articles, reference has been made to Doctor Roger Parke, who, so far as known, was the first white settler within the present limits of Hopewell Township. There is a singular fascination about every scrap of tradition concerning this old pioneer, who settled on the farm now occupied by Mr. C. E. Voorhees, two miles west of Hopewell Borough, his farm two hundred years ago including several of those now adjoining Mr. Voorhees. It is an old tradition that when he first settled there, the Red men of the forest still had their wigwams, and held their Powwows, on the banks of Stony Brook at that point; and that the dusky maidens admired their beauty as reflected in the crystal waters of the stream, while the young braves reclined on its green banks, under the grand old trees which were still standing within the memory of the writer, and were the beauty and glory of the romantic old homestead. This spot was the birthplace of the writer, and in his boyhood it was one of the traditions of the place that the old Indian medicine men had taught Doctor Parke their mysterious arts of healing, and that the herbs and plants which flourished in such great variety all about the place, had, many of them, been planted by him and their leaves, blossoms, barks and roots, used in his practice. Occasional reference to Doctor Parke, made by the old people of the neighborhood, awakened an intense desire to know more of this traditional old doctor, of whom the "oldest inhabitant" seemed to know so little, and who had his residence there, years before the birth of the writer's great great grandfather. To my youthful imagination, the man who had the courage to live among a barbarous and savage race, whose cruelty and treachery were proverbial, was an immortal hero, and deserved a more imposing monument than the rough sand stone in the old family graveyard, which bore the simple and very vague inscription, "R. P. 1755, A. 91." One of my earliest recollections was of the old garden, which occupied a part of the same spot as at the present, a considerable space of which was, at that time, devoted to beds of herbs, both annual and perennial, some of which bore large showy flowers, while others were very insignificant, proving that they had been planted for use, rather than beauty. The dilapidated old fences were overgrown with a thicket of vines and shrubbery, which also had their uses in the old doctor's time; but in the writer's boyhood, was a favorite summer resort for the robins and catbirds, whose happy voices blended very harmoniously in the early morning, but created a frightful discord later in the day, as they spitefully snarled and scolded over the right of possession to the old garden. Some of the herbs in this garden were not native to this locality, but had been brought from other states and transplanted, on account of their valuable medicinal properties; and the old Larison family, who were descended from Dr. Parke, and succeeded him on the homestead, were familiar with their uses, and had carefully guarded them while they remained on the farm. A few years after the old farm came into the possession of the father of the writer, the old house which had sheltered Doctor Parke and at least three generations of his descendants in the Parke --Larison line, was taken down, and a new house erected near the site. The old garden was not spared in the march of improvement, for while it was in keeping with the old house and its surroundings, it was strangely out of harmony with the new order of things, and was "cleared up." While some of the herbs were transplanted to the new garden, most of them (which were called by the old people, "Old Doctor Park's Yarbs,") were consigned to the brush pile, but not to oblivion, as many of the same varieties are still found on the shelves of every up-to-date drug store in the country. After the lapse of two centuries a few still survive on the farm, to recall the memory of the famous old doctor, who had here stewed and brewed the bitter concoctions, which won for him the distinction of being the pioneer physician of old Hopewell. So far as known he was the only physician in this region for many years, and rode on horseback over these hills and mountains, when very few houses stood between the Delaware and the Millstone, and all the country to the north was still the home of the Lenni Lenape. On these long lonely rides his saddle bags were well supplied with an assortment of remedies for both external and internal treatment. It was not a prescription age, and as no drug store existed nearer than New York or Philadelphia, he carried an apothecary shop with him. He had his cere-cloth, salves, ointments, washes (or liniments), plasters and poultices, for external application; and besides these, his pills and powders, which were used on all occasions. These latter, the old doctors called their "pukes and purges," but in the more polite usage of our times, would be termed emetics and cathartics. His constant companions were the lancet and horn cup for bleeding and cupping, which were considered indispensable to the outfit of every doctor and chirurgeon of "ye olden time." It is not known whether Dr. Parke had received any medical education before emigrating to this country, but the fact that his name is not found in any of the biographies of early physicians in this state, is no proof. It is a well known fact that some of the pioneer physicians, who had a very extensive practice before the revolution, and served as surgeons in the army for a time, are not mentioned in any of the histories heretofore published. His home was a Mecca for the afflicted, who made long pilgrimages to be treated for cancers, ulcers, catarrh, rheumatism and other diseases, not too severe to admit of the patient making the journey on foot or on horseback, as we must not lose sight of the fact that in Dr. Parke's day there were no wagon roads. One of the popular modes of treatment practiced by the Indian "medicine men," and doubtless by Dr. Parke also, was the "sweating and plunging" remedy, which was invariably resorted to in obstinate cases which refused to yield to ordinary treatment. It was heroic treatment and in some instances, where the patient was low in vitality or the diagnosis of the "medicine man" was at fault, it was attended with fatal results. Yet it was said that they performed some wonderful cures, which seemed little less than miraculous. The mode of treatment was to heat a large stone red hot, and then cover it with a heavy tent of skins, tightly sewed together (such as were used by them in winter) then place the patient inside in a perfectly nude condition. The stone was then frequently wet with water until it caused the perspiration to "stand out like beads," and in this condition the patient would be hurried to the near-by brook and plunged in, only for a moment, when he was taken back in the tent or hut, and covered with skins or blankets, until the perspiration was more profuse than before, if possible. Hon. Ralph Voorhees, who wrote several articles on the early settlers of the Raritan valley, which were published in the magazine "Our Home," tells the story of Cornelius Wyckoff, of Middlebush, Somerset County, who was affected with a severe attack of rheumatism. A friendly Indian living in a hut nearby told him that if he would submit to the above described treatment he could cure him. Mr. Wyckoff finally consented and was taken to a little sod structure built in the side of the hill, where the means were applied to produce an extraordinary perspiration. A hole had been previously cut in the ice of the brook sufficiently large to admit the patient, and into this he was plunged. The Indian then took him out, wrapped him in a blanket, carried him to the house, put him to bed and then heaped blankets over him until, as it was told, "the perspiration ran down the bed posts." "That will do," said the doctor, "remain there until you and everything become dry, then be careful for some days, and you will be well." The patient followed the doctor's advice, and in a few days all stiffness and pain left him, and the result was so marvelous that he "felt as if he had neither limbs nor body--so comfortable. He became entirely well and lived many years afterward." That Dr. Parke was a man of considerable prominence two hundred years ago, is obvious from the fact that soon after the year 1700, the old "Indian path to Wissomency," (as it was called in the earliest deeds) began to be designated in the deeds from Trenton to Stony Brook as "Rogers Road," instances of which are given in previous articles. The origin of the name was a puzzle to the writer, until in an old book of court records in Flemington, he found the record of the original survey of the road from Ringoes to Marshall's Corner, dated March 30, 1722, a copy of which will be found in article number 21 of this series. We will republish the last course given in said survey, retaining the capitalization and spelling. "Thence along a line of Marked trees as aforesaid to a Hickory tree standing near Samuel furmans Corner, by the side of Roger Parks his road." "Furman's Corner" is now known as Marshall's Corner, and this settled the vexed question as to who the road had been named for, and now the question arose, why should it have been named for Roger Parke? There seems to be but one plausible solution, and that is, that he was the pioneer who opened up this road to the white settlers and caused the name to be changed from the "path" of the red man, to the "road" of the pioneer. Roger Parke resided near "Crosswicks' Creek," a few miles east of Trenton in 1690, and about that time commenced his study of the Indian practice of medicine with the Indians at Wissamenson. To do this, he probably made frequent pilgrimages over this path until it began to be known as "Rogers Road." A few years later when Doctor Parke made his home at Wissamenson, many of his Quaker neighbors of Crosswicks and the "Falls" (now Trenton) doubtless followed him for treatment, as they had been associated with him in the Friends meeting at Crosswicks and Chesterfield, before he settled" away up in the woods," on the banks of Stony Brook. It is a well known custom of the Friends to which they still religiously adhere, to call people by their Christian names, consequently it was not "Mr. Parkes road," but in speaking of it they would say, "this is Roger's road," or "the road to Roger's." Doctor Parke was an influential member of the Society of Friends, and may have been a relative of the noted author and zealous Quaker preacher, Jas. Parke, who was born on the border of Wales in 1636, and was cotemporary with George Fox, the distinguished founder of the Society. The following record copied by the writer from an old record book of the "Friends meeting," is in proof of his prominence in the church. "2d 8th mo. 1684. Thos. Gilderthorpe, Roger Parke and Robert Wilson agreed that a week day meeting be held at the ffalls upon a fifth day of every week, (except that week the monthly meeting is at Francis Davenports) one day at Mahlon Stacy's, one day at Thomas Lamberts and one day at Thos. Sykes." April 12, 1905. In Liber B., Part 1, Book of Deeds, on file in the office of the Secretary of State at Trenton, is found the record of a deed dated May 24-25, 1682, from Edward Bylinge to "Roger Parke of Hexham, county of Northumberland, England, yeoman," for 200 acres of land, to be laid out in "West Jersey." On November 11, 1686, "Roger Parke, late of Hexham, now of Crosswicks Creek," sold the above tract to John Watkins, of Middlehook. In 1875, the writer found in the possession of Misses Susan and Sarah Sexton, who were descendants of Doctor Parke, the original parchment deed from Anthony Woodhouse to Roger Parke of Crosswicks, dated the thirteenth day of the eleventh month, called January (old style) 1685, for "one two thirtieth of a Proprietary in the first ten Proprietaries," the consideration being the sum of six pounds, sixteen shillings, current money of said Province. If this deed is still in possession of either of the above named sisters, it is the oldest known document of the kind in existence. The writer had a synopsis of this deed published in the Trenton State Gazette, in July, 1875. In 1687, Roger Parke owned 200 acres near Crosswicks Creek, and served on the grand jury from that locality in 1688, and again in 1690, and was foreman of the grand jury in 1692, and in 1698 was one of the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas. In Revell's Book of Surveys, Liber A., Page 14, "Reversed side," is found a record of the original survey of the Parke tract on Stony Brook, at Hopewell. It is dated April, 1697, and commences as follows, "Surveyed then for Roger Parke 400 acres on the north side of Stony Brook at Wissamenson." This survey began at a white oak tree at the bend of the brook, a half mile north of the ford (now Moore's mill at Glen Moore), from thence it ran west through the swamp, to a point north of the present location of the iron bridge, near C. E. Voorhees'. From this point the brook had a well defined channel, which was followed "up ye several courses thereof," to an elm tree standing on the north side of the brook above the slate quarry, on the farm of W. W. Kirkendall. Thence north to a point near the late residence of Wm. S. Stout, deceased, thence east to the northeast corner of the farm now owned by Amos Sked, thence south following his line and that of the E. S. Wells farm (formerly Samuel Ege's) to the Stony Brook road near the old baryta mines, and thence to the place of beginning, "containing 400 acres, besides allowance for ways." In May, 1697, Roger Parke had 100 acres surveyed for his daughter, Anne Parke, adjoining his tract on the east, which is fully described with a history of its subsequent owners, in number 17, and several of the succeeding articles of this series. On June 12, 1698, Roger Parke received his deed, and on August 9, 1698, Anne Parke hers, for the above tracts, and by subsequent and more accurate surveys, they were found to contain about 650 acres. On June 16, 1699, "John Parke of Parkesberry," in the County of Burlington, purchased of Thomas Revell, agent for the West Jersey Society, 300 acres adjoining his father on the north. If his tract exceeded the number of acres specified in his deed as much in proportion as the tracts surveyed for his father and sister, the Parke family had fully 1000 acres lying in one body, between Stony Brook and the mountain (or "Rocks," as the mountain was then known) bounded on the east by the road leading from the Stony Brook road at the mines, by way of Mr. Montag's north to the old 30,000 acre line, near the southern boundary of the farm now owned by Zephaniah Hixson, and thence west to the road leading from Stony Brook to Runyan's saw mill. This north line of the 30,000 acre tract of Col. Daniel Coxe was subsequently changed, and all the deeds conformed to it, calling it Doctor Coxes's "true line," and on and near this line was located the old driftway known for many years as the old "Bungtown road" leading to Coryell's ferry--now Lambertville--which was in use until the old turnpike was opened up in 1820-21. After the Parke family had located their lands, their next thought was to provide homes for their families, and in this it was the custom for the pioneers to assist each other. It seldom required more than two or three days to get a log cabin enclosed. As there were no saw mills, they selected a straight grained red, or black oak tree, from which they split boards and plank for roof, door and floor. The hinges and latches were all made of wood and the doors pinned together with wooden pins, not a handful of nails being used in building a house in those days. The windows were made of oiled paper or deer skin, dressed thin enough to admit the light. The fire-places were without jambs and stretched all the way across one side of the cabin and were made deep enough so that large logs could be piled in, and the family could all be accommodated with a seat at the fire. Having built their houses and made a table, a bedstead and some benches for each, the pioneers next turned their attention to clearing a field large enough to raise some buckwheat, beans and potatoes. The largest trees were left standing and girdled by cutting a deep notch all around them, which stopped the flow of sap and killed them the first year, after which crops could be raised without the trouble and expense of removing them. Where the trees were very large and scattering the land could soon be made tillable in this manner, as there were no small trees or bushes near them, and in clearing the land of the smaller trees, they were cut down, dragged together and burned. A portion of this land was devoted to raising flax, which the pioneer would need for garments by the time it could be grown and manufactured, as it all had to be spun, woven and made up on the farm. No wool could be produced by the pioneers for many years after their settlement, on account of the depredations of wolves, which were very numerous and troublesome. Wool for underwear, stockings and blankets was brought on horseback from the older settled portion of the country, where wolves were less numerous or had been exterminated. The outer garments of the pioneer were principally from the flax grown on his farm, first spun and then dyed, with the barks of the trees grown on the farm, to any color desired, after which it was woven and made up by the mother and daughters of the household. Next to flax, the most important crop the first year was buckwheat, as it could be quickly and easily grown and served as a substitute for bread, as well as feed for the few animals kept on the farm. The pioneer scratched over the ground the best he could with a knotty log, and harrowed in his buckwheat with a heavy brush, as the wooden tooth harrow could not be used until the roots and stumps had decayed. His buckwheat was cut with the sickle as scythes were not in use until 1750, and when it was ready to thresh, a piece of ground was cleared off, a post placed in the centre, around which a team of horses were driven, until the ground was tramped very solid, when the grain was thrown on and repeatedly shaken up until the horses had threshed it. Fanning mills were not in use until about 1750 and the grain and chaff were heaped up and left until there was a good stiff beeeze, when it would be tossed up until cleaned, when it would be put in a bin built of rails and thatched over with straw. Here it would be left until needed, when it would be ready to be crushed with the "plumper" as described in Number 22, or loaded on the backs of his horses, and a trip made to mill, which in the case of the Parkes, was through the forest to the log mill of Mahlon Stacy, which stood on the bank of the Assanpink where it is now crossed by Broad Street, Trenton. To scores of others, "going to mill" involved a journey of from fifty to one hundred miles or more and then the grain was only ground, not boited, and the good wife was obliged to bolt it through a cloth of homespun before it was ready for the griddle. The first mills were erected on the small streams, on which dams could be built with small expense, and they were a great curiosity, being constructed by the pioneer. The wheels were all of wood, pinned together with wooden pins and some of these mills ground only five to ten bushels per day and were often unable to run on account of ice in winter and droughts in summer. Very little corn was planted the first few years, as it could not be cultivated with the wooden plows then in use, on account of the stumps and roots, and cultivation with the hoe was very tedious and laborious work. Very little grain was grown for market for many years after the first settlement of the country, as the demand was very limited, the price very low and transporting it to a navigable stream, on the backs of pack horses, attended with great difficulty. In later years, when corn became one of the staple products it was often all shelled by hand, before the big fireplace in the kitchen on the long winter evenings, with no other light than that from the blazing logs. The contrivance used for shelling was not patented and consisted of a wash tub with the long handled frying pan run through the handles of the tub and held firmly in place with corn cobs. Two good men, one on each side of this "machine," would keep a third man hustling to carry the corn in from the crib as fast as they could shell it. Thousands of bushels of corn were shelled in this manner, not only by the pioneers, but by the three or four generations succeeding them, for one hundred and forty years after the settlement of the country. 5ROGER PARK, (N. J., 1678,) Of Hexham, county of Northumberland, England, came in "The Shield," in 1678. He purchased land in West Jersey, of Edward Billinge, May 24-25, 1682, and settled there. He had a large family and his descendants have probably spread through Pennsylvania and the west. A short account of this family is found in the "Pioneers of Hopewell," published at Hopewell, N. J., in 1908. On 10 Apr 1676 when Roger was 27, he married Ann PATISON2.2 They had the following children: 6i.Sarah7ii.John (1678-1757)8iii.Anna9iv.Grace10v.Kesiah (~1700-)11vi.Roger (~1703-)12vii.William (1711-) 3. Thomas PARKE, Son. Thomas was baptized on 5 Feb 1657.1 Thomas died on 8 May 1664. 4. George PARKE, Son. George was baptized on 12 Mar 1654.1 George died on 30 Sep 1718.1 5. James PARKE, Son. James was baptized on 8 May 1664.1 Previous * Next Contents * Index * Surnames * Contact 


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